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Posts Tagged ‘stockbridge’

Sweeney’s Booknotes: Edwards and the Science of the Soul

Sarah Rivett, The Science of the Soul in Colonial New England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011).

This thought-provoking book traces the multiple intersections of early modern natural science (known then as “natural philosophy”) and Puritan spirituality, especially those located close to Locke’s epistemology. Rivett, a junior professor in the English department at Princeton, shows that Puritans did not oppose the rise of modern science, or every form of the Enlightenment. Rather, they took empirical study of the sensory world quite seriously, contributing to an evangelical form of the Enlightenment, primarily through their science of spiritual testimony.

The Puritans, that is, studied the human soul and the saints’ varied experiences of grace using the same methods scientists used to study the natural world. In chapters recounting the public testimonies of conversion in New England, both by Anglos and by Indians, deathbed professions, public statements made by those who claimed to be haunted by witches in Salem, as well as testimonies of grace made in New England’s Great Awakening, Rivett claims that “the science of the soul” in early New England played a major part in the flourishing of modern empiricism. Modern science, then, for her, is not a product of secularization, but was fueled in part by Protestant religion.

Readers of this blog will want to know that Rivett’s final chapter deals at length with Edwards, whom Rivett interprets as a part of the evangelical Enlightenment who helped to effect an important shift in the science of the soul to more immediate and individual testimonies of grace. “It is through [a] combined nexus of influences from Enlightenment philosophy to New Light theology to the knowledge supplied by lay testimonies,” she avers, “that Edwards produced a New England version of the evangelical Enlightenment that would constitute the last phase of the science of the soul: an empirically discernible sign of regeneration, more certain than the evidentiary criteria to come before” (p. 281).

Rivett does make a number of mistakes when dealing with Edwards. She says his sermon series devoted to the History of the Redemption was comprised of 39 sermons (p. 282, though on p. 310 she notes correctly that the series was actually 30 sermons long). She bases much of the Edwards chapter on the mistaken understanding that Edwards sought to return Northampton to the early Puritan practice of requiring public testimony of all who would be members. (Edwards never said any such thing.) She interprets the Stockbridge period, like so many others have done, as one of “philosophical and ministerial exile.” The Stockbridge Edwards “still continues to write, preach, and convert,” she says, “but he does so without the ambitions of the historical and geographical specificities of the colonial endeavor or the conviction that philosophy might learn from the larger cosmic meaning behind the Puritan project” (p. 284, a sample quotation that indicates the rather abstract nature of much of Rivett’s narrative). She identifies Sarah Edwards’ famous spiritual ecstasies, experienced in the revival, as her “conversion experience” (repeatedly). She dates the “initial phase of Sarah’s conversion experience” to 1758 (p. 309, clearly a typographical error). She exaggerates what she labels Edwards’ “attempt to attain religious certainty through testimony” (p. 321). She also misleads readers by saying that “Edwards fails in his empirical quest to transform Northampton into a laboratory of grace” (p. 322—I dare say Edwards would not have owned this “quest”).

But though its author proves unstable on the field of Edwards studies (and with theological history), this monograph is helpful on the scientific study of the soul incited by testimonies of grace–and on the rise of Christian empiricism generally. Rivett offers a thoughtful reading of the broader implications–for modern science and religion–of the practice of public testimony in early modern New England.

Recommended for graduate students and other scholars working on early American culture.

–By Douglas Sweeney, Director of the JEC at TEDS

Sweeney’s Booknotes: Edwards, the Red Brethren, and the Race Problem

David J. Silverman, Red Brethren: The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and the Problem of Race in Early America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010).

This book contains only a few, brief references to Edwards. Nevertheless, Edwards scholars will want to give it careful attention for the ways in which it fleshes out the roles of several friends, disciples, and devotees of Edwards in the Christianization of Native American Indians in what became the northeastern United States.

Readers of this blog already know the Stockbridge Indians, a network of tribes including Mohicans, Housatonics and others tied to the Stockbridge mission. The Brothertown, however, have not received as much attention. Comprised of Narragansetts, Mohegans, Pequots, Miantics, Tunxis, and Montauketts from both the Connecticut and New York shores of Long Island Sound, they migrated to upstate New York in the 1780s, joined forces with the Stockbridge, were forced to pick up stakes and move again with the Stockbridge to Wisconsin, then in the late 1830s became the first group of Indians to obtain full United States citizenship.

Silverman’s study seeks to explain “why and how Indians came to interpret their struggles with colonialism racially. More specifically, it is interested in the ways in which Indian people understood, employed, and constantly redefined the categories of Indian, white, and black” (p. 32). Its focus on racialization and racism yields a typically jaundiced view of Christian Indian missions. But it also yields new insights into the history of what we might well call the Indian Great Awakening. During the 1730s and 40s, northeastern Indians converted in large numbers to Christianity, more than ever before in history, joining white churches at first and often separating later due to prejudicial treatment, forming their own Native American congregations. Their shared experience of revival brought thousands of Indians together across their various tribal boundaries. The vast network that resulted “linked Indian communities from Long Island Sound more firmly to each other and to the Delawares of New Jersey, the Mohicans of the Housatonic River Valley, and the Oneidas of Iroquoia. Historically, these groups were divided by space, politics, and, to a lesser degree, language. Yet the Indians’ shared struggles with colonialism followed by their common Christianity led them to identify with each other as a race of people and to express that solidarity in the language of Protestantism” (p. 32).

This learned study joins a growing list of books on Indian Christians in the age of the Great Awakening whose piety was shaped by Edwards’ evangelical ministry. It is better on people like Samson Occom and Eleazar Wheelock than it is on Edwards himself. But when read together with studies such as the ones listed below, it goes a long way toward helping us appreciate the complicated legacies of Edwards in the world of Native American Christianity. Highly recommended.

A select bibliography on Edwards, the Edwardseans, New England’s Great Awakening, and the emergence of Native American Christianity:

John A. Andrew III, From Revivals to Removal: Jeremiah Evarts, the Cherokee Nation, and the Search for the Soul of America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991)

Denise T. Askin, “‘Strange Providence’: Indigenist Calvinism in the Writings of Mohegan Minister Samson Occom (1723-1792),” in John Calvin’s American Legacy, ed. Thomas J. Davis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Richard A. Bailey, Race and Redemption in Puritan New England, Religion in America Series (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Althea Bass, Cherokee Messenger (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936)

Linford Fisher, The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America (New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming)

John A. Grigg, The Lives of David Brainerd: The Making of an American Evangelical Icon, Religion in America Series (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)

Joel W. Martin and Mark A. Nicholas, eds., Native Americans, Christianity, and the Reshaping of the American Religious Landscape (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010)

Gerald R. McDermott, Jonathan Edwards Confronts the Gods: Christian Theology, Enlightenment Religion, and Non-Christian Faiths (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Gerald R. McDermott, “Missions and Native Americans,” in The Princeton Companion to Jonathan Edwards, ed. Sang Hyun Lee (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005)

William G. McLoughlin, Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984)

William G. McLoughlin, “Two Bostonian Missions to the Frontier Indians, 1810-1860,” in Massachusetts and the New Nation, ed. Conrad Edick Wright, Studies in American History and Culture (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1992)

Samson Occom, The Collected Writings of Samson Occom, Mohegan: Leadership and Literature in Eighteenth-Century Native America, ed. Joanna Brooks (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Rachel M. Wheeler, “Edwards as Missionary,” in The Cambridge Companion to Jonathan Edwards, ed. Stephen J. Stein (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Rachel Wheeler, “Lessons from Stockbridge: Jonathan Edwards and the Stockbridge Indians,” in Jonathan Edwards at 300: Essays on the Tercentenary of His Birth, ed. Harry S. Stout, Kenneth P. Minkema, and Caleb J. D. Maskell (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005)

Rachel Wheeler, To Live upon Hope: Mohicans and Missionaries in the Eighteenth-Century Northeast (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008)

See also the articles written against U.S. treatment of the Indians in the heavily Edwardsean The Spirit of the Pilgrims (SP): “Review of an Article in the North American Review,” SP 3 (March 1830): 141-61; “Speeches on the Indian Bill,” SP 3 (September 1830): 492-500, and (October 1830): 517-32; “Review of the Case of the Cherokees against Georgia,” SP 4 (September 1831): 492-513; “Review of Pamphlets on the Death of Jeremiah Evarts, Esq.,” SP 4 (November 1831): 599-613; and “Review of Thatcher’s Lives of the Indians,” SP 6 (January 1833): 41-47.

–By Douglas Sweeney, Director of the JEC at TEDS