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Archive for August, 2011

Sweeney’s Booknotes: Jonathan Edwards and Scotland

Kelly Van Andel, Adriaan C. Neele, and Kenneth P. Minkema, eds., Jonathan Edwards and Scotland (Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2011).

This is a fine volume of essays, written mainly by junior scholars. Although its title suggests that it focuses closely on Edwards’ Scottish connections, several of its essays tie Edwards to people in other places such as England, Wales, the Netherlands, Native America, even Königsberg. A few indulge too much in transhistorical speculation regarding “affinities” between Edwards and others who lived in different contexts (who neither knew Edwards and his works nor were known or read by him). But most provide keen insight into the ways in which Edwards was actually read and used in early modern Scottish history.

This book began at a conference convened at the University of Glasgow in March 2009, which was organized by the Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale Divinity School. It is the first published volume to look exclusively (or nearly so) at Edwards in modern Scotland. Its contributors work in history, theology, philosophy, and literature.

Kelly Van Andel, who was finishing her dissertation in Glasgow at the time of the conference itself, now teaches at the University of New Mexico. Neele and Minkema, of course, direct the Edwards Center at Yale.

Although its price ($120) will keep this volume out of the reach of most students, I recommend it to everyone interested in the legacy of Edwards in the place where he was more widely read than anywhere else but America.

Here is a look at its table of contents:

Editors’ Introduction

Chapter One—Wilson H. Kimnach, “‘Unfearing Minds’: A Transatlantic Brotherhood of Preachers”

Chapter Two—Adriaan C. Neele, “Exchanges in Scotland, the Netherlands, and America: The Reception of the Theoretico-practica theologia and A History of the Work of Redemption

Chapter Three—David Ceri Jones, “‘Sure the time here now is like New England’: What Happened When the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists Read Jonathan Edwards?”

Chapter Four—Chris Chun, “The Legacy of Jonathan Edwards: Eighteenth-Century Catalysts for Revivals among Presbyterians and Baptists in Scotland”

Chapter Five—Nicholas T. Batzig, “Edwards, McLaurin, and the Transatlantic Concert”

Chapter Six—Kelly Van Andel, “The Geography of Sinfulness: Mapping Subjectivity on the Mission Frontier”

Chapter Seven—Richard A. S. Hall, “Edwards and Hume on Causation”

Chapter Eight—H. G. Callaway, “Witherspoon, Edwards, and ‘Christian Magnanimity’”

Chapter Nine—Natalia Marandiuc, “Human Will, Divine Grace, and Virtue: Jonathan Edwards Tangos with Immanuel Kant”

Chapter Ten—Susan Miller, “Beauty Is Truth, Truth Beauty: Jonathan Edwards and John Keats”

Chapter Eleven—Kyle Strobel, “Jonathan Edwards’ Reformed Doctrine of the Beatific Vision”

–By Douglas Sweeney, Director of the JEC at TEDS

Sweeney’s Booknotes: Jonathan Edwards and Reformed Spirituality

Belden C. Lane, Ravished by Beauty: The Surprising Legacy of Reformed Spirituality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

I delighted in this essay. Belden Lane, a Presbyterian and graduate of Fuller, teaches theology and American religion with the Jesuits of St. Louis University. He devotes the bulk of his time to mining the history of theology for sources of ecological and moral inspiration. In this book, the culmination of many years of painful struggle to come to terms with the ethos of Reformed Christianity, he pursues what he refers to as “a historical, theological, ethical, and even liturgical agenda . . . . to articulate a spirituality of desire in the history of the Reformed tradition, asking how major figures from John Calvin to Jonathan Edwards have emphasized the beauty of the world as a way of contemplating the beauty of God” (p. 13).

The Reformed tradition is not well-known for its aesthetic sensibility. It has received far more attention for its allegedly distant, cold, predestinarian doctrine of God, stern approach to the moral life, and dim view of worldly beauty. However, in Lane’s earthy hands, Reformed Protestantism brims with love for the world, indeed the cosmos, as the theater of God’s glory, goading readers to groan deeply for its coming restoration and to care, in the mean time, for its creatures.

His chapters on Edwards build on the work of Roland Delattre and Sang Hyun Lee to argue, not that Edwards himself worked as an eco-theologian, but that Edwards’ doctrine of God and theology of beauty can inspire and make good sense of environmental ethics today. “The physical universe,” for Edwards, is “a mirror of God’s glory, participating in what it reflects. The world is not simply a thin veil through which we reach toward a God wholly beyond it. For Edwards, nature—in all of its sensory palpability—is itself taken up into the still more sensuous glory of God. In the process, it teaches us desire, opening its mysteries to all who have received a new sense for the perceiving and extending of beauty in their common life” (pp. 199-200).

Or as Lane concludes in a chapter on what he has taken from Edwards’ ethics, “Jonathan Edwards . . . was a man for whom God was a constant amazement, a man for whom angels were ultimately more real than carriage bolts. But he never dismissed the tactile world of carriage bolts and harnesses, quill pens and mint sprigs as unimportant. He simply knew that reality, at its deepest level, is more than mere ‘stuff.’ It’s a matter of intimate relationships initiated by a communicative God. A purely material, non-relational world (like that of Thomas Hobbes) could never be ‘real’ for him. Yet the closest he came to imagining God’s ideal Beauty was by attending to the endless array of nature’s interrelationships. He loved the world because of the access it offered him to God, but he loved it nonetheless” (p. 210).

Historians may cringe from time to time in Lane’s story. He harbors “a love-hate relationship” with Reformed spirituality (p. 57). A recovering fundamentalist (a status he describes at numerous points throughout the book), he seeks to compensate for the harshness of his boyhood Calvinism by construing his tradition in a much more liberal way. He mines it for things he finds retrievable, discarding and even attempting to destroy what he dislikes (not an eco-friendly method). He is honest and open about this. In the end, though, it yields a rather attenuated Calvinism pruned for present purposes more than a panoramic picture of the Reformed spiritual landscape (in all its biodiversity).

As Lane suggests in a typical moment of spiritual profundity, “It isn’t the mastery of truth, but a relentless longing for it that qualifies those who become trusted guides for others” (p. 1). He misleads from time to time. But in the main, Lane has proven himself to be a trusted guide for those who long for the whole world to magnify the glory of God.

–By Douglas Sweeney, Director of the JEC at TEDS